Students who use their cell phones frequently may experience higher levels of anxiety and receive lower GPAs, according to a study published in the journal Computers in Human Behavior.

The study, which surveyed over 500 undergraduate students from a public university in the midwest, found that while “low” cell phone users (defined as less than 150 minutes and 30 text messages/day) had an average GPA of 3.2, students defined as “high” cell  phone users (over 300 minutes and 80 text messages/day) had an average GPA of 2.8. In addition, Jacob Barkely, associate professor of exercise at Kent State University and co-author of the study, reported that “high” cell phone users showed higher anxiety levels on a common multiplechoice test used to evaluate prolonged anxiety.

“There is growing evidence that college students’ cell phone use is negatively associated with academic performance as well as mental
and physical health,” the authors wrote. “Thus, the development and testing of interventions designed to reduce college students’ cell
phone use is warranted… [S]tudents should be encouraged to monitor their cell phone use and reflect upon it critically so that it is not detrimental to their academic performance, mental health, and subjective well-being or happiness.”